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 Glossary of terms that relate to translation (acc. to DIN 2345):

Translation - the act of rendering a text from the source language into the target language in written form.

Native language (native speaker competence) - a language that a person learned as a child and has continued to use it as his/her language of habitual use.

Specialized language competence - familiarity with the relevant subject matter and command of its special language conventions.

Source language - language in which the source text is written.

Target language - language in which the target text is written.

Source text - the text to be translated.

Target text - the result of the translation process.

Parallel text - text in the source or target language which is comparable to the source text in terms of subject matter or the type of text.

Background text - text in the source or target language dealing with the subject matter of the source text.

Localization - rendering a text from the source into the target language with regard to the civilization and/or social specific of the country, region or target persons that the text is designed for. 
Globalization makes its opposite.

Globalization - rendering a text from the source into the target language this way that it will be understandable for as many people around the world as possible.
It makes an opposite to localization.

Controlled language - language with a restricted vocabulary and restricted rules of formulation.

Standard page - 1500 keystrokes (i.e. including spaces) that is calculated with the "Wordcount"-option of MS Word or any other program

Proofreading - usually made by a third party. This activity consists in verifying the target text in terms of:
a) its completeness related to the source text
b) its correctness as for terminology and its target group
c) linguistic correctness in terms of punctuation, grammar, style etc.

CAT-tools - mean software that is to support the proofreader in his/her every day's activity particularly when he/she deals with long texts where similar sequences occur. Translation Memory makes a basic integrated part of the software (e.g. TRADOS, TRANSIT, Wordfast etc.) that is built from the previously translated texts.